Eustoma (lisianthus) again persistently attracts a lot of fans. Combining the tenderness of rose flowers, the strength of lush leaves and a slightly moody character, it is used to decorate events and make elegant bouquets. The plant can be grown at home from seeds. We will analyze the nuances of planting, care and competent cultivation of perennial beauties, evaluate photos of the most common varieties.
Lisianthus (eustoma) in nature and in design
Eustoma has many names and is also known among flower growers under the name of Lisianthus Russell, Irish, Japanese rose, Texas bell. This is a representative of herbaceous plants, biennial. Now the name Eustoma is more often used, which translated from Greek means beautiful lips. Lisianthus (translated as a bitter flower) is the name of the same genus according to the botanical classification, now outdated. Eustoma is a native of the southern regions of the United States, northern regions of Mexico, found in the Caribbean. At home, the flower is called: Texas bell, tulip gentian, and sometimes just gentian.
Described back in the eighteenth century, the large-flowered eustoma (Eustoma Grandiflorum) and Russell's eustoma (Eustoma Russilianus), as a result of the active work of breeders, gave rise to various varieties.
This botanical genus includes 3 species:
- Lesser Eustoma, Lesser Gentian, Western Gentian, Blue Marsh Eustoma (Eustoma exaltatum);
- Eustoma grandiflorum (Eustoma grandiflorum);
- Lisianthus, Eustoma Roussel, or Russell (Eustoma russellianum).
In the wild, eustoma reaches a height of 60 cm, its flowers are of various shades of blue... The stems are powerful, the elongated leaves are colored dark green, with an unusual bluish tinge. The wild plant prefers well-lit, warm places with fertile light soil. Propagated by seeds, biennial under usual conditions.
The varieties bred by breeders are pleasing to the eye with flowers of white, purple, yellow, red, apricot color. The bicolor and edged eustoma flowers look unusually impressive. The appearance of lisianthus buds is unusually similar to unblown roses, and many varieties do not lose this similarity during flowering, only they look more delicate. Elongated leaves in combination with widely branching stems, on which up to thirty delicate inflorescences ripen in turn, create a unique image of Lisianthus, a kind of simply royal. Breeders have bred varieties with simple and double petals, giving the flowers additional splendor. The delicate beauty of the plant did not go unnoticed by designers and florists, eustoma is used in the preparation of wedding bouquets, to decorate banquet halls, and to decorate special events.
Photo gallery: eustoma in design
Where is the best place to grow a flower
Eustoma can be grown both at home, on balconies, loggias, and in garden plots. You need to focus on the climatic conditions of the region. The flower feels good as a balcony decoration. When planting seedlings in open ground, the plant blooms until September, and when frost approaches, it can be transferred to a house where the lisianthus will delight the owners for a long time.
Lisianthus annual and perennial
At home, in nature, lisianthus is a biennial plant, but when grown outdoors it is used as an annual, since its delicate root system does not withstand winter cold. This is not surprising if you remember the origin of the flower - there is no frost in its homeland. Although the efforts of scientists have bred varieties that are resistant to lower temperatures, nevertheless, the geography of year-round cultivation of eustoma in the garden in our country is limited (in winter, the air temperature should be at least +10aboutFROM).
At home, eustoma can be cultivated for more than one year, but according to the reviews of amateur flower growers, even under favorable circumstances, the plant degenerates in two years and does not give the expected flowering. Therefore, often in the form of indoor flowers, lisianthuses are grown for one year and are thrown away after flowering.
There are many varieties of eustoma seeds on sale for every taste
The seeds of this flower are almost always sold with an annual marking. If you want to extend the life of a plant planted in open ground, with the approach of frost, it must be dug up entirely and stored at home. With proper care, it is likely that in the spring the eustoma will start growing and will delight with flowers for another season.
Series and varieties of lisianthus: descriptions with photos
Breeding work with Lisianthus does not stop to this day. New series are constantly appearing, within which a wide range of varieties of various types and colors is presented.
Variety series are subdivided into two large groups:
- tall - reaching heights of up to a meter or even more, planted in open ground for cutting;
- undersized - compact varieties, perfect for growing at home on a windowsill.
The difference exists not only in the size of adult plants, but also in the shades of the petals; within each group, plants with double and simple flowers are distinguished. Most of the seed comes from the United States and Japan. So far, breeders have not been able to bring out the curly eustoma to date. Under the guise of a weaving lisianthus, the gardener, at best, will receive a weaving or park rose.
ABC F1 is a series of terry annual Lisianthus. The height of the stems reaches 75–100 cm, the inflorescences are large, 5–6 cm in diameter. Series varieties: Blue border, Blue haze, Blue blush.
Kyoto F1 - this series represents a selection of tall (up to 90 cm) varieties with simple non-double flowers, early flowering. Representatives of this series: Pikot wine-red, Pikot Pink, Pikot Blue, White Kyoto.
Photo gallery: eustoma series ABC and Kyoto
Echo F1 is another series of tall eustoma, bred by Japanese scientists, with stems up to 70 cm long, simple flowers, belongs to annuals. Bouquets of plants on tall, strong stems look great when cut.
Photo gallery: Echo series for open ground
Flamenco F1 is a series of tall eustoma (up to 70 cm), with large, up to 7 cm in diameter, simple (non-double) flowers. Early flowering variety, annual, flowering starts 2 weeks earlier than others. The most common varieties are Yellow, Lime, Pink.
Arena F1 is a series of lisianthus with a stem height of 80–100 cm. Terry flowers up to 7 cm in size are painted in a variety of shades, producers classify the variety as annual. Lush red flowers are collected in luxurious inflorescences.
Photo Gallery: Annual Plants of the Flamenco Series, Arena
The Piccolo F1 series is represented by a line of tall Lisianthus varieties, annuals, with a stem length of 70 cm, simple large flowers.
Japanese breeders presented the Wonderose series - tall plants (up to 70 cm), annuals, forming lush caps of simple large flowers. The most famous varieties are Light Brown, Pepl.
Photo gallery: eustoma of the Piccolo and Wonderous series
The delicate border of the eustoma petals is especially attractive.
Universal (for garden and windows) varieties
There are on sale eustoma seeds with a stem height of up to 50 cm. Such plants are planted both at home and on the site.
Twinkies are a series with flowers 50 cm high, spirally arranged in simple flowers. There are many varieties, the most common are Pink, Blue-violet, Yellow.
Cinderella F1 is a series of eustoma with stems up to 50 cm in height, annual, with simple flowers of various colors.
Photo gallery: series for home and summer cottages
Low varieties - can be grown in pots
At home, compact varieties feel good. Manufacturers have developed many series with small plants. Here is some of them.
Eustoma Mermeid (Little Mermaid) F1 - a series of undersized lisianthus. The height of the stems is about 15 cm, the flowers are simple 6 cm in diameter, perennial. Varieties: White, Lilac-pink, Pale pink, Blue, Mix.
Photo Gallery: Mermaid's Perennial Series (The Little Mermaid)
A very compact series ideal for home breeding - Sapphire F1. Perennial pot culture, 13–20 cm high, flower size - up to 5 cm, both double and simple varieties were bred.
Photo Gallery: Sapphire Blossom Series
The Carmen F1 series is another representative of low-growing potted crops. Plant height 20-25 cm, annual, flowers reach a size of 4-6 cm. Varieties: White-blue (with a rim), Lilak, Rose, Ivory, Blue.
Florida F1 - a series of compact annual Lisianthus 20-25 cm high, with double and simple flowers up to 10 cm in diameter. The most famous varieties: White, Sky Blue, Pink.
Photo gallery: indoor series Carmen and Florida
Choose plants to your liking and let them delight you with beautiful flowering for a long time.
Planting gentian seedlings at home and caring for it
Tall varieties are perfect for growing on the site. During the period of active flowering, they will decorate the garden with luxurious flowers, which, when cut, will stand at home for up to two weeks. Preparation for planting in open ground begins long before spring with growing seedlings.
When to sow
Planting seeds directly into the ground on the site will not work, especially before winter - eustoma does not tolerate temperatures below +10aboutFROM. The period from planting to flowering takes 22-26 weeks, so planting seeds for seedlings should be done in December-February.
Can be propagated by cuttings or roots
Reproduction by cuttings is possible only in theory, in practice they do not take root. The same happens when dividing the rhizome - the fragile roots of Lisianthus react painfully to any damage. That is why dividing the bush can lead to the death of the entire plant.
As for propagation by bulbs, this is in principle impossible, since lisianthus is a herb and does not form bulbs.
If you are offered to buy lisianthus bulbs, feel free to leave. At best, the seller is deluded himself, at worst - he is trying to deceive you.
Growing from seeds
Seed propagation is perhaps the only really effective way to reproduce eustoma. Planting seed is sold in a wide range, although more recently it was only available to special farms engaged in floriculture. The seeds of the plant are extremely small, one gram of them contains from fifteen to twenty thousand, so they go on sale in the form of pills. The shell is supplemented with auxiliary nutrients that help in the early development of the plant.
Due to their very small size, Lisianthus seeds are sold in a coated form.
How to cultivate the soil and plant seeds
The soil for planting should be chosen light, a commercially available mixture for Saintpaulias is well suited. Another option is to plant seeds in peat tablets. They are convenient in that in the future, you can do with transhipment into larger containers without damaging the sensitive roots of small Lisianthus. How to prepare the soil yourself:
- Mix two parts peat with one part garden soil and half a part sand.
- The soil must be sterilized, so the slightest infection can quickly kill seedlings. For this, the soil is spilled with boiling water with a strong (dark pink) solution of potassium permanganate.
- After the ground has cooled, the seeds are planted - laid out on the surface of the soil and lightly pressed.
Sterilization is also required for containers in which seedlings are planted. Peat tablets are also processed with boiling water with potassium permanganate, after they swell to the desired size and cool down, they begin to plant seeds.
The seeds are laid out on the ground and pressed slightly
- The seeds are laid out on the surface of the prepared soil and slightly pressed down.
- After planting, you need to moisten the soil, it is convenient to use a spray bottle for this.
- The nutrient composition covering the seeds hardens after drying, making it difficult for weak sprouts to germinate. To avoid such problems, after moistening the dragee, you can gently crush it with a toothpick, destroying the shell.
- The planting is covered with foil or glass, you can use a container with a transparent lid, and put in a well-lit place.
The planted seeds are sprayed with water
Eustoma seedlings care
Eustoma seedlings are very demanding on light; planting should be placed on well-lit windowsills. Seeds planted in winter, due to the short daylight hours, need additional artificial lighting. You can use a phytolamp (sold in shops specializing in the sale of garden supplies), if it is not there, a regular fluorescent lamp will do. Under artificial light, seedlings should be up to 12-15 hours a day until about the end of March.
Under the lighting, the seedlings should be in the dark during winter.
When germinating seeds, you need to ensure a favorable temperature regime... In the afternoon, the seedlings should warm up to 22-25aboutС, at night - not lower than 18aboutC. It will not be necessary to moisten the germinating seeds very often at first, since there will be enough evaporated moisture in closed containers. If the soil dries up, it is carefully sprayed with water from a spray bottle. Be sure to ventilate the germinated seedlings by sliding the lid off the container or removing the film for 5-10 minutes.
The first shoots appear about two weeks after planting the seeds. Germination of lisianthus is considered good if 40-50% of the planted seeds have sprouted. After the appearance of the first sprouts, watering should be carried out only in the morning, so that the stem and leaves have time to dry out in the evening. This will reduce the risk of root rot on the seedlings. Approximately 5–6 days after germination, the seedlings should be hardened. On the first day, air baths are arranged for 10 minutes, then the same amount is added every day. After reaching three o'clock, the film cover (container lid) can be removed.
When picking, the plants are placed in separate containers
After the appearance of two pairs of true leaves, at 6–8 weeks after germination, the seedlings are dived into separate pots. The sprouts will be very small, but this is a normal type of plant at this age. When picking, you need to carefully pick up the seedling with a toothpick along with a lump of soil and transplant the baby separately. It is not worth tightening with a dive, the rapidly growing root system is easy to damage. The soil for the transplanted shoots is taken the same as when planting. It can not be sterilized, it is enough to treat it with fungicides (antifungal drugs). Fundazol diluted in water at the rate of 1 gram per 1 liter of water is suitable.
A month later, the grown seedlings need to be transferred to a larger container.... In this case, you need to act carefully, trying not to damage the roots.
- Lay expanded clay drainage at the bottom of the container (layer thickness - 3 cm).
- Then soil is poured - about 4 cm (you need to focus on the size of the container and the plant itself).
- The sprouts are removed along with the soil, very carefully moved into a new container.
- Pour the soil along the walls of the dishes, tamping slightly, trying not to leave the root collar bare.
- After transshipment, pour water over.
In the future, it is important not to overfill or dry out the plants. Watering lisianthuses is necessary when the top layer of the soil dries up with warm water, which has settled.It is categorically impossible to spray growing eustomas with water - this leads to diseases of leaves and stems.
The seedlings will grow in these pots before they are transplanted into the garden.
If the seedlings grow slowly
Eustoma growers note that lisianthus grows very slowly in the first months. This is due to the growth of the root system, after which the aerial part starts to grow. Therefore, if it seems that the seedlings have stopped and do not increase in size, this is normal, after a couple of months the active growth of the plant itself will begin.
For more abundant flowering, you can pinch lisianthus at the stage of 5-6 pairs of leaves. This procedure will make the plant more bushy.
Top dressing of seedlings
Seedlings can be treated with Epin growth biostimulant at the rate of 4 drops per 100 ml of water. Plants are sprayed after picking, so timing so that by the evening the leaves are dry. After transplanting, the plant is fed weekly, Agricola is suitable for flowering plants. It is better to use a liquid form of feeding, diluting it with water according to the instructions. Many gardeners advise slightly lower concentrations than indicated by the manufacturers.
Video: growing lisianthus from seeds at home
We transplant seedlings into the garden
You can plant lisianthus on the site as soon as night temperatures are at least 18aboutC. The site should be well lit, preferably not in direct sunlight, with good air movement, but no strong piercing winds. The soil is needed light, loose, not waterlogged.
- Shallow planting holes are dug in the ground (you need to focus on the size of the eustoma) at a distance of 20-30 cm.
- Mineral fertilizer is added to the planting pits, nitrophoska is suitable. Eustoma needs a neutral soil, therefore, in areas with high acidity, you need to add a little wood ash to the pits for planting.
- The soil in the hole is mixed with fertilizer and eustoma is planted, trying not to deepen it lower than it was in the pot.
- After planting, water the plant without wetting the leaves.
- Mulch the ground around the seedling with peat.
The soil for eustoma in the garden is mulched with peat
In the future, the process of caring for lisianthus comes down to the need for timely watering, the reference point will be the dried top layer of the earth. Loosening is imperative, this is necessary for good aeration of the root system. The varieties planted on the site usually reach a height of about 1 meter, so support will be needed. For this purpose, a bamboo support is suitable; a support with hooks for orchids will do a good job. For the entire period of stay of eustoma in the garden until autumn, complex fertilizers for flowers should be applied weekly in a slightly lower concentration than recommended.
Leaving during flowering
Depending on the variety and the timing of planting the seeds, the flowering of lisianthus begins in mid-July and lasts until September. Extremely fragile at the beginning of life, the plant develops into a powerful bush, crowned with a whole bunch of flowers. During flowering in dry weather, watering is increased, not forgetting about mulching the soil around the flowers.
However, in a rainy summer, the eustoma will be extremely uncomfortable, flowers and buds can rot from getting wet, the risk of fungal infections increases. Decaying flowers and leaves must be removed, the plant must be treated with Fitosporin or similar fungicides for prophylaxis.
Blooming flowers can be cut, at home they will stand in the water for about two weeks, and at the cut site the shoot will grow back and give new buds. The flowering of Lisianthus is long and abundant, one shoot can give up to 30 buds, which bloom alternately.
Proper care of eustoma ensures long flowering
What to do with a perennial in autumn
Eustoma blooms for a long time, until the first frost. With the approaching cold weather, there are two options:
- Cut flowers and unblown buds, they will delight with their appearance for another two weeks, and dig up and dispose of the bush.
- Bring the bush home for storage.
If you want to grow a biennial plant, you need to ensure the wintering of the plant at home:
- Dig up Lisianthus carefully, without damaging the roots, together with an earthen lump.
- Plant in a suitable pot and place at home.
- At room temperatures, the plant will continue to bloom, after which watering should be reduced.
- Cut off the stems, leaving three internodes.
- Determine for winter storage at a temperature of 10-150 heat.
Is it possible to collect seeds yourself
You can collect plant seeds, but there is one subtlety. Sold mainly series marked F1. This letter denotes the belonging of seeds to heterotic hybrids. Such plants are either sterile, or the seeds formed by them do not carry parental traits in the second generation. That is, if you are lucky to collect the seeds and germinate them, then the result can be unpleasantly surprising - something completely different from the previous generation will grow. The best solution would be to buy new seeds for planting next year.
Care during the wintering period
- A plant prepared for wintering with cut stems should be placed in a dimly lit place at a temperature of +10aboutFROM.
- Reduce watering to one or two times a month, you can completely stop, do not feed.
- When new shoots appear on Lisianthus, you will need to resume watering, increase the temperature and put it in a lighted place.
Gardeners, intending to grow eustoma as a biennial plant, use a more convenient method of transporting the plant for wintering without transplanting. The flower is initially brought to the site in a pot, dug in, and with the onset of cold weather with the same pot, it is brought into the house. This reduces the risk of damage to the roots, the plant tolerates a dormant period more comfortably. It is impossible to leave the plant on the site in winter in Russia - this will definitely destroy it.
When planting in the ground immediately in a spacious pot, it is easy to dig up the plant for the winter
How to care for eustoma in an apartment
Low-growing varieties of Lisianthus are ideal for growing in the house. Seed producers offer a wide selection to suit every taste Usually on the seed bags you can see marks indicating the height of the plant. Compact series will perfectly fit on the windowsill and will delight you with large bright flowers.
Planting seeds and the main stages of caring for germinating seedlings for indoor cultivation are no different from growing seedlings intended for open ground. Everything was said above. The only difference is that after transshipment of the grown seedlings, they remain on the windowsill until the beginning of flowering.
Eustoma feels comfortable in the temperature conditions of the apartment. The lighting should be bright, but not in direct sunlight.
Table: seasonal conditions for keeping Lisianthus at home
It is not difficult to keep lisianthus in a home environment. The temperature in the apartment is quite suitable for the comfortable existence of the flower. It is better to determine the place for it on the windowsills facing west or east. Eustoma is a lover of light, but direct exposure to the burning rays of the sun can damage leaves and flowers.
To determine when to transplant the eustoma into a larger pot, you can use the roots that begin to break through the drain holes of the pot. This suggests that the plant has become cramped. A container with a volume of 2–2.5 liters is enough for 3 plants, which will develop and grow actively throughout the growing season until they enter dormancy.
Humid air is favorable for the plant, but it is important to remember that you cannot spray the leaves and flowers, this can lead to rot disease. The best option would be to put a container filled with water next to the flower pot.
If you decide to leave the Lisianthus for the next year, after flowering, the stems are cut, leaving three internodes, watering is reduced.
Problems and solutions
With any cultivation option, whether it be an apartment or a garden plot, lisianthus is not immune from the risk of diseases and pests. Seedling diseases are easier to prevent because they are difficult and sometimes impossible to treat. To prevent the fungus from infecting the seedlings, it is imperative to sterilize the soil for planting and all equipment.
Experienced gardeners do not mention stretching seedlings, but to prevent this misfortune, it is necessary to supplement the plantings with lamps in the winter season. To protect young seedlings from lodging, you need to protect them from drafts and regularly examine them for diseases and pests.
Table: typical pests and diseases of eustoma
Video: recommendations for choosing seeds and growing
Eustoma is a long-growing flower, and while quite rare, it is not always possible to find seeds in retail sale. Rarity can be considered a plus, guests will probably ask what kind of rose is not an ordinary one you grow. Another plus of the plants is a wide variety of colors, you can plant different varieties nearby and the combination turns out to be very beautiful and unusual.
Reviews of gardeners about the flower
It may seem that breeding eustoma is not an easy task. The flower is called capricious, requiring increased attention. This is partly true, but the effort pays off with the enchanting sight of the flowering plants. Remember that grafting eustoma, a climbing Japanese rose or bulbous lisianthus are tricks of unscrupulous sellers that should be fought by ignoring such a product.
As a diligent student at school, I listened carefully to the advice of teachers. They could not decide in any way where I would be better able to reveal my abilities - physics and mathematics or humanitarian field.
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Eustoma, alternative name: Lisianthus is a one- or two-year-old plant of the gentian family. Another poetic name for this flower: Irish rose. This is a very beautiful flower, easy to care for, grown both outdoors and at home.
Inflorescences are abundant, on long peduncles. The plant has dark leaves with a bluish tint, with a waxy texture. The homeland of Lisianthus is Central America, which means that cultivation requires a warm and humid environment in the absence of drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
Flowers look like roses at first, and after full blooming - like poppies. Eustoma is ideal in floristry: its massive inflorescences are perfect for cutting, do not fade for a long time and can become the basis for a bouquet in any style. Lisianthus happens:
- annual: this species is easy to care for and reproduce, suitable even for inexperienced florists
- perennial - rather difficult to grow and plant in open ground, but its flowering significantly exceeds its counterpart in beauty and duration. Most often, it can be found on window sills, and not on flower beds.
- indoor eustoma is a dwarf unpretentious species that grows no more than 30 cm in height and is excellent for rooms with good illumination.
The best varieties of eustoma for growing from seeds
At home, they practice growing lisianthus from seeds. They retain all the characteristics of the variety and species of the parents.
Important! For indoor cultivation, the most suitable are low-growing (up to 45-50 cm) varieties of eustoma. When choosing seeds, preference is given to hybrids of the first generation, they are designated by the letter F1.
Their advantage is as follows:
- not capricious in relation to the length of daylight hours
- tolerant of temperature fluctuations
- have good germination
- resistant to diseases and mutations.
The following varieties are considered the best for growing from seeds:
- The Kyoto series is a non-double, large-flowered eustoma, distinguished by a variety of flower colors.
- Series Picot - large-flowered, with a strong aroma and rich color in various shades of red.
- Mermaid is a low-growing eustoma with simple purple, lilac, pink flowers. Differs in abundant branching of the stem without additional pinching.
- Little Bell is also a short plant. The flowers are small, simple. It is characterized by abundant flowering, a variety of colors.
- Fidelity is a snow-white eustoma with a large number of small flowers that form a spiral on the peduncle.
- Florida Pink - Abundant bloom of light pink small flowers arranged like a bouquet.
- Twinks are non-double flowers of a pale yellow or snow-white color, often with the smallest specks and strokes of pink or purple flowers.
- Champagne - double flowers, uniformly colored.
- Sapphire is a highly decorative eustoma: short, compact, with white flowers edged with pink or blue.
General rules for planting bulbous
Planting bulbs in the fall begins with looking at the bulbs. In order for the flowers to grow well and not get sick, you need to pay attention to the condition of the bulbs before planting. If there are slight damages on them, the bulbs can be treated in a manganese solution, the places of damage are also treated with brilliant green. Throw away bulbs with traces of rotting or disease, otherwise all flowers in the garden can get sick.
In the prepared area, the top layer of soil is removed, the bottom can be covered with fine sand, the bulbs are laid out at a short distance from each other. Each onion should be lightly pressed down and covered with earth. If the soil is clay, for better flower growth, the backfill soil is mixed with humus or peat. The planting sites are mulched, watered, it is better to mark them with pegs so as not to accidentally dig them up in the spring.
When buying bulbs in opaque packaging, you can buy diseased or damaged ones, you can try to cure small damage with brilliant green or manganese, but ideal for planting - strong and healthy bulbs without sprouts
Planting the bulbs in loose fertile soil does not require drainage, it is enough to make a deepening, place the bulbs at a certain distance, cover with a layer of soil and water
It is easier to plant bulbs on a lawn - a layer of turf is removed, a bulb is placed in the loosened soil and covered with turf.
What care does the indoor eustoma require after flowering?
After flowering, it is recommended to cut the stems of the eustoma in such a way that no more than 3 internodes remain on each. The cut plant is transferred to a cool place in the house with an air temperature of 10 ° C. During the dormant period, the plant needs rare moderate watering, feeding stops altogether. In the spring, with the appearance of young shoots, the home eustoma is transplanted by transferring it into new soil with micronutrients. The usual watering and care of the transplanted flower is resumed.
Self-cultivation of eustoma from seeds will require a lot of time and patience from the grower, but the luxurious flowering and unobtrusive aroma afterwards will pay off all the effort.