Red-leaved hazel has been known for a long time for the benefits of its fruits and excellent melliferous properties. Besides shrub is actively used for decorative purposes... It fits well into the landscape and serves as a worthy decoration of personal plots.
Description of hazel Krasnolistnaya
Hazelnut Krasnolistnaya is a monoecious shrub that grows mainly in central Russia, which is often called hazelnuts. Naturally grows in deciduous and mixed forests, but can be found in the steppe, forest-steppe. Prefers moist soil, rich in mineral fertilizers.
Plant height ranges from 3 to 7 meters... Hazel leaves are oval-round reddish brown. The underside of the leaf plate becomes green by autumn. Female flowers and male catkins grow on one plant. They bloom in early spring, even before the leaves appear. Hazel blossoms in mid-March, fruits ripen in August - September. It grows quickly, begins to bear fruit as early as 4 - 5 years after planting... The fruits of hazel are called nuts. Nuts are combined into infructescences of 2 - 5 pieces. The shrub bears fruit annually, but yields alternate from moderate to plentiful. The total life span of the bush is 50 - 80 years.
Nut composition and benefits
Hazelnuts are incredibly healthy. They contain in their composition:
- easily digestible proteins;
- B vitamins;
- group E vitamins;
- vitamins of group C;
- iron salts.
Eating hazel nuts is good for both adults and children. They provide the young body with trace elements necessary for growth. Supports heart and brain function in adulthood... Kernels are eaten raw, roasted, dried. They are added to soups, stews, desserts, liqueurs. Nut flour, crushed and ground nuts are widely used in cooking.
Hazel has always been famous not only for its taste, but also for its medicinal properties.:
- Fresh kernels are thoroughly ground with a little water to obtain nut milk. Such a product has a high nutritional value and recommended for use by weakened patients.
- Nut infusions successfully used for diseases of the lungs, kidneys and stomach.
- Nuts grated with honey have a beneficial effect on the circulatory system the body, relieve pain in rheumatism and gout.
- Nut flour mixed with whipped egg yolk - an excellent remedy for heat burns.
- Peanut butter widely used in the fight against helminths. It is also added to many moisturizing beauty masks and creams.
- Nut infusions significantly enhance immunity and increase hemoglobin.
- Due to the combination of zinc and B vitamins, hazel fruits used to increase potency, stimulation of spermatogenesis and normalization of the pelvic organs.
- Nuts are lactogenic and help to increase milk supply in lactating women.
- Hazelnut extract increases the tone of the central nervous system, normalizes bowel activity.
- Vitamin E in nuts helps to cope with sore throats and colds.
Planting and caring for a tree
Almost all types of soils are suitable for planting hazel, except for arid and swampy. Grows best in fertile, drained soil without a lot of stones and sand... The bushes are quite shade-tolerant, but in closed shaded areas, the yield is significantly reduced. Prefers well-lit, windless places - slopes, gullies, forest outskirts. The plant is frost-resistant, but in severe winters there is a danger of freezing. It is recommended to plant on the eastern, northeastern low slopes, since in spring the least temperature fluctuations occur here, which will reduce the likelihood of inflorescence burns.
To improve the yield, it is recommended to plant several bushes side by side to facilitate cross-wind pollination.
It is recommended to plant the plant in spring or autumn, but the most favorable time is mid-September. To plant a bush, you need to prepare a hole 70x60 cm... A thick layer of humus is laid out at the bottom of the pit at the rate of 10 - 15 kg per plant. For good survival of the bush, you can add potassium salt and superphosphate to humus. It is also recommended to add soil from under another growing hazel to the planting hole. Mycoses are formed on the roots of the bush, which are a combination of fungi and the root system of a plant. Adding such soil allows the seedling to grow and develop faster.
Before planting, seedlings must be cut to 25 - 35 cm... The root system must be placed in a special mixture of humus and clay - this will improve the survival rate of the plant.
Bushes can be planted at a distance of 5 - 6 m from each other. If Krasnolistnaya hazel is planted for decorative purposes, then the distance can be reduced to 3 - 4 m. The planted seedling must be tied to a wooden support.
To get a rich harvest, you need proper and timely care of the plant.:
- Watering... Despite the drought tolerance, watering the plant should be regular. It is especially important during planting and rooting of the seedling. It is better to water hazel early in the morning or late in the evening so that the scorching sun does not harm the roots. It is better to use warm spring water for irrigation.
- Top dressing... It is recommended to feed the bush with organic fertilizers once every 3-4 years, and mineral fertilizers must be applied every year. Before the appearance of fruits, you can fertilize the soil with urea.
- Formation... For good growth and development, the bush must be thinned out. In the fall, 1 time in 6 - 9 years old, underdeveloped branches should be sawed off, leaving 7 - 10 trunks. It is important to make sure that the trunks branch off evenly from the root, and not clump together on any one side. If preference is given to the formation in the form of a tree, then 1 trunk is left, from which skeletal branches then branch off.
- Loosening... It is advisable to loosen the soil after each watering of the plant. This is especially important during the rooting process.
Breeding rules for this variety
There are several ways of breeding hazel. It reproduces by seeds, layering, dividing the bush and cuttings... It is important to remember that the varietal characteristics are fully preserved by hazel only during vegetative propagation.
Red-leaved hazel reproduces well by layering. For this purpose, young annual shoots are used. A small groove 15 - 20 cm deep is dug next to the shoot... The shoot bends down into a groove, is covered with earth and abundantly watered with warm water. The top of the shoot must be firmly tied to a wooden peg placed next to it. You should not separate the shoot from the mother bush.
After a month, the buds on the shoot give their own shoots. In the middle of summer, when they grow up to 15 - 20 cm, they are spud up to 2/3 of the height.... Over the summer, hilling is repeated 3-4 times. When transplanting, the processes are separated from each other. Several new seedlings are obtained from one shoot.
Seed propagation is a rather long and laborious process. Large ripe nuts are selected for sowing. Can be planted in autumn and spring. Sowing is recommended to be carried out in fertilized moist soil to a depth of 5 - 6 cm.
The distance between the seeds in the groove should not be less than 10 cm, between the grooves - not less than 20 cm... The top of the groove is covered with a mixture of humus and peat 3-5 cm thick. If the seeds are planted in autumn, then the grooves should be insulated with sawdust, hay or moss. Seedlings are dug out of the garden bed 2 years after germination and planted in a permanent place.
By dividing the bush
By dividing the bush, Krasnolistnaya hazel reproduces quite easily. The dug out bush must be divided into several parts so that in each part there is a trunk with roots 20-30 cm long... Each part is planted in a deep hole and watered abundantly with warm water. This method is actively used in the discharge of walnut plantations.
Red-leaved hazel takes root hard and takes a long time. The most favorable outcome is possible when using cuttings from a two-year-old shoot. DFor grafting, the strongest shoots are selected, which are cut off from the bush in the morning... They are planted in the ground from a mixture of sand and peat. The soil must be constantly moistened. Direct sunlight is harmful to cuttings, as are cold drafts.
When grafting, it is recommended to use fogging equipment.
Red-leaved hazel begins to bear fruit at 4 -5 years of its life... Nuts ripen in August - September, rarely at the end of July. The main sign of ripeness is the yellowing of the fruit and their separation from the branches. The yield from one bush can reach 20 kg... The fruits collected for storage are recommended to be dried and stored in canvas bags.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Hazel is a fairly disease-resistant variety. The main pests affecting the plant include the following:
- nut weevil;
- kidney mite;
- common aphid;
- boring beetles.
Bushes should be protected from pests with Intavir... Early treatment is recommended before the buds open, repeated after the formation of leaves.
Drilling beetles are especially dangerous for the harvest. Female beetles lay eggs in immature fruits. The hatched larvae eat the inside of the nut and get out, gnawing a hole in the shell. An effective remedy against borers is the occasional strong shaking of the bush.
Red-leaved hazel is susceptible to various fungal diseases... Colloidal sulfur is used against them and the bush is sprayed with a Bordeaux mixture.
Squirrels, walnuts and woodpeckers cause serious damage to the crop.
Red-leaved hazel is easy to plant and grow, easily tolerates changes in temperature and humidity. It is highly adaptable.... With minimal maintenance, it will delight the gardener with high productivity and aesthetic beauty.
Rules for planting and caring for red-leaved hazel, a description of the best varieties
Red-leaved hazel is an interesting plant that is very popular with gardeners. This culture has an unusual lush crown with red leaves. Due to this, it is often used in landscape design. The plant has tasty and healthy fruits. In addition, it is an excellent honey plant. That is why many summer residents plant this type of hazelnut on their plots.
- 1 Description and features
- 2 Advantages and disadvantages of hazel
- 3 Popular species and varieties
- 3.1 Lambert
- 3.2 Kontorta
- 3.3 Warsaw
- 3.4 Siren
- 3.5 Magenta
- 3.6 Ordinary
- 4 How to plant correctly
- 4.1 Recommendations for timing
- 4.2 Selection and preparation of planting material
- 4.3 Site requirements
- 4.4 Soil and site preparation
- 4.5 Landing pattern
- 5 Care rules
- 5.1 Watering mode
- 5.2 Top dressing
- 5.3 Cropping
- 5.4 Loosening and weeding
- 5.5 Mulching
- 5.6 Crown formation
- 5.7 Preparing for winter
- 5.8 Protection against diseases and pests
- 6 Breeding methods
- 6.1 Seeds
- 6.2 Root layers
- 6.3 Shoots
- 6.4 Cuttings
- 7 Harvesting and storage
- 8 Tips from Experienced Gardeners
- 9 Application in landscape design
It is difficult to achieve annual fruiting of common hazel in the Urals. It depends on the weather conditions. Return frosts threaten flower buds. Male inflorescences freeze slightly in winters with little snow.
Hazel planted in a draft will not bear fruit. The landing site is chosen taking into account the wind rose. The seedling must be protected from the north and northwest winds. In the shade of trees, buildings, it grows poorly and does not bear fruit, tolerates light partial shade.
Hazel does not like swampy and dry soil... It grows poorly if the groundwater is high. Varietal varieties develop better on humus-calcareous soils. In the conditions of the Urals, it is recommended to grow hazel on the eastern, northeastern slopes.
In the Urals, hazel seedlings are planted in the spring before the buds open. In the fall, the site is prepared for planting. They dig planting holes. As soon as the ground thaws, seedlings are planted. After the snow melts, the soil contains a lot of moisture, this promotes rooting.
The crown of the shrub is compact, but in an adult plant it occupies a large area. This is taken into account when landing. Landing holes are dug according to the schemes:
- 6 x 6 m
- 6 x 5 m
- 6 x 4 m
- 5 x 4 m.
With a denser planting, the feeding area and the level of lighting are insufficient for the normal development and fruiting of hazel.
When choosing a planting site in the garden, the predecessor culture does not play a role. Terraces are formed on slopes with an angle of inclination of more than 10 °. Pits measuring 1 x 1.5 m are dug on them.On flat areas - 0.5 x 0.5 m.
Lime is added to acidic soil in autumn (500 g / m²). For better aeration, humus and sand are added. It is recommended to introduce soil taken from under wild hazel bushes into the planting pits. It is inhabited by a symbiont mushroom. It protects the bush from diseases, promotes the rapid absorption of nutrients.
Seedlings in containers take root without problems. They are more expensive. When buying a hazelnut with an open root system, its quality is checked. Pay attention to the condition of the roots. They should be fresh, undamaged, fibrous. For planting, seedlings with a height of 1-1.5 m are suitable.
Before planting, hazel is placed in water for 2-3 hours. To fill the hole, a fertile substrate is prepared:
- garden soil taken from the top layer
- superphosphate - 150 g
- humus (compost) - 2-3 buckets
- potassium salt - 50 g.
The mixture is poured in the form of a slide into the center of the planting pit. A hazel seedling is placed on it, the roots are covered with earth. The root collar is not buried. Shoots are shortened by 5-6 buds. 3-4 buckets of water are poured into the hole. The soil is mulched with humus.
Hazelnuts have been used and cultivated for a long time. Nuts contain 70% fat, 20% easily digestible proteins, 5% sugar, vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Hazelnuts are much more nutritious than pork and soybeans. It contains ascorbic acid and carotene. The leaves are filled with essential oils, and the bark contains palmitic acid, tannins, betulin.
The kernels are eaten raw, roasted, dried. They are used in cooking - confectionery and food production. They add to halva, candies, chocolate, oriental sweets, make nutritious flour and creams. They are especially popular in Caucasian cuisine. Fresh nuts are ground and with the addition of a small amount of liquid, cream and milk are obtained, which are recommended for weakened immunity after lingering illnesses. Toasted nuts are used to make coffee-like beverages. They are also used to make a variety of liqueurs.
The seeds produce an excellent oil, similar to almond oil - it is considered the most useful vegetable oil, which has a pleasant taste and smell. It is used in perfumery and paints and varnishes, soap making. Halva is prepared from the cake, the remaining extraction. Young leaves are suitable for making delicious cabbage rolls, soups, tea.
Hazel wood, flexible, fine-grained, easily splitting, is used in furniture and agricultural production. It produces quality charcoal, from which gunpowder and pencil lead are made. Powerful branches are used for wattle fences and hedges, and thinner branches are used to feed livestock. Carpentry and turning crafts are made of wood. Sawdust in the Caucasus clarifies vinegar and refines wines. The bark is used for tanning and dyeing leather. It is environmentally friendly and harmless to humans, therefore it is used for dyeing valuable products, in printing and shoe polish. Walnut oil is used in cosmetology and painting.
It is cultivated as a decorative species, from which a hedge is made, hills and ravines are fixed from destruction and erosion of the soil. High-quality pollen is fed by beekeepers to bees in winter. Fallen leaves are rich in calcium salts and, when rotted, increase soil fertility. Some varieties of common hazel have large, dense foliage, acquiring the most colorful and varied shades in the fall. They are pleasing to the eye, and cheer up. Therefore, the plant is extremely popular in landscape design and gardening.
Planting and caring for red-leaved hazel
Hazelnuts prefer fertile, moderately moist soils that do not contain sand or clay. Hazel grows well in lighted open areas, grows in the shade, but bears fruit poorly.
Preparation of planting material and site
To get a good harvest of nuts, several hazelnut bushes are planted nearby. Choose an open area, well lit by the sun, not blown by the winds. Planting can be done in spring or autumn. Agronomists recommend rooting this crop in mid-September.
Several seedlings of red-leaved hazelnuts with different ripening periods are chosen for planting. They will pollinate each other well. Seedlings are chosen with a small number of leaves, a well-developed root system. The length of the branches on the rhizome is at least 30 cm. One seedling should have 3 or more shoots. Before planting, the roots are soaked in special solutions to stimulate growth.
A month before planting, a pit is prepared. During this time, the earth will settle in it and be well rammed. Its size should be about 70x70 cm, no less. The bottom of the pit is covered with a bucket of humus with a glass of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate.
For good survival and rooting, hazel is planted according to certain rules. It is important to observe the distance between seedlings (3-5 m), choose a site that is not flooded by spring floods.
- In the center of the pit, a hill of earth is poured for rooting of hazel.
- The roots are taken out of the solution, straightened, evenly laid out in the center of the bulk mound.
- The shoots are fixed vertically, tying them to a wooden peg, which should be installed in the pit.
- After the roots are covered with loose earth and slightly trampled.
- The root collar is left 5 cm above the soil level.
- The seedling is watered with 3 buckets of water.
Watering and feeding
Red-leaved hazelnut loves moist soils, but does not tolerate excess water. After planting and watering, the near-stem circle must be mulched with pine needles or sawdust.
A week after planting, watering is repeated. It is necessary to ensure that the moisture from the previous time is completely absorbed. Stagnation of moisture near the shoots and rotting of the roots should not be allowed.
In summer, watering is carried out 2-3 times a month. Water consumption per plant is 10 liters. It is important not to allow the roots to dry out in June and July. At this time, the fruits of the current year are being formed.
Red-leaved hazel should be fed after planting no more than 1 time in 3 years. Humus and compost are used as fertilizers. For 1 plant, they will need 5 kg. At the beginning of summer, to increase productivity, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in an amount of 100 g per plant.
Loosening and mulching
In the summer, the trunks must be loosened several times a month. This should be done carefully and shallowly, since the roots are close to the surface of the earth. After watering, as soon as all the moisture is absorbed, the soil around the rhizome is mulched (covered) with cut grass, needles, tree bark. This will trap moisture near the root.
Pruning and shaping the crown
Pruning of red-leaved hazelnuts is carried out in late autumn after the foliage has fallen off. It is important to thin out young plants up to 4 years old annually. This will increase the yield of the plant during the fruiting period.
Hazel is cut, starting from the center of the crown, forming a kind of vase. This will allow the sun's rays to penetrate the young, unformed shoots. This increases the number of nut sets.
During autumn pruning, dry, damaged, too long branches are removed. Lateral shoots are bent down and to the sides, fixed with a wire. This will facilitate the access of sunlight and air deep into the crown.
Preparing for winter
Young plants up to 4 years old must be wrapped for the winter with agrofibre or film. You can bend long shoots to the ground, fix with metal brackets. From above, the bush is covered with spruce branches. As soon as snow falls, it is thrown on top of the bush. Red-leaved hazelnut over 4 years old, frost-resistant varieties (Maria Makarevich, Miracle of Vsesvyatsky, Pushkin red) winters well without shelter.
Common hazel, growing and care
On the garden plots, lush bushes of hazel and hazelnuts are still rare, giving their delicious fruits - nuts in autumn. Although common hazel is thousands of years old and is still very popular, for the majority of the population, hazel nuts remain a delicacy that rarely ends up on the table.
This can be explained by the low prevalence of the hazelnut culture and its irregular productivity in places of natural growth. Nevertheless, with the breeding of hazel varieties for the middle lane, the number of amateur gardeners who want to grow this useful ornamental shrub is growing.
Useful properties and composition
Hazelnuts (hazelnuts) kernels have excellent taste, in addition, they are the most nutritious of all nuts. According to this indicator, the core is higher than fish and meat. It contains: 65-73% non-drying fatty oil, 16-23 proteins, 3-8 carbohydrates, 3.2% fiber, as well as carotene, biotin, vitamins B, B2, C, E, macro- and microelements.
The leaves contain essential oil, glycoside myricitrozil, up to 10% tannins, they contain more vitamin C than fruits. Essential oil, tannins, betulin, palmitic acid were found in the bark of shoots and branches, in addition, up to 20% of tannins were found in the bark.
The medicinal properties of common hazel
Preparations made from hazel are used in the treatment of skin diseases (neurodermatitis, eczema, etc.). The leaves, harvested in May, are used in folk medicine for liver diseases. The fruits, freed from the thin brown husk, are recommended to be eaten in a mixture with honey for anemia and rheumatism.
Nuts rubbed with water - for hemoptysis, kidney stones, flatulence, as a lactogenic agent, for bronchitis and fever. Crushed fruits mixed with egg white are used for burns.
The bark, collected in spring, is used for malaria a plyusa (leaf wrapper) of fruits - for diarrhea, nut oil as an antihelminthic agent (for ascaris) and for epilepsy. To strengthen the hair, the oil is rubbed into the scalp.
Recently, they began to pay attention to hazel not only because of the delicious fruits.
Thanks to its large dense green foliage, which turns bright yellow and red with the arrival of autumn, hazel is now planted as an ornamental shrub.
There is also a very picturesque form with intense purple color of the leaves throughout the season. Such a bush will certainly become a decoration on a garden plot, in a public garden or a park, and will expressively set off other plants.
Hazelnut oil is a valuable nutritious product; its properties are not inferior to almond oil; moreover, it serves as a raw material for the perfumery, soap-making and paint and varnish industries.
The cake remaining after pressing contains up to 8% oil and 48% protein, suitable for making halva.
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Nuts are used to prepare fillings for sweets, add to pastries, cakes and other confectionery products, and use them in the production of liqueurs.
Hazel trunks are used to make handles for gardening equipment and various tools, fishing rods, walking sticks, hoops for wooden barrels. Fences are braided with them. The bark is used in the leather industry. A special coal is burned out of wood, which is in demand among artists.
Description of hazel
Common hazel (hazel, hazelnut) is a perennial nut-bearing fruit crop of the Birch family, the Hazel family. It is widely distributed in the wild in the forest and steppe zones of Europe, as well as in the Caucasus.
In the European part of Russia, it lives in the undergrowth of coniferous-broad-leaved and broad-leaved forests, mainly in clarified areas, since it does not tolerate strong shading. It grows rapidly in clearings and burned-out areas.
The total life expectancy is 60-80 years.
Individual roots go to a depth of 50-60 cm, so hazel is used to create protective strips, to anchor slopes and ravines. Seedlings begin to bear fruit in the 5-10th year, plants from vegetative reproduction - in the 4-6th year. Fruiting irregularly. Wild hazel bush yields from 1 to 3 kg of nuts, and cultivated varieties - up to 8 kg or more.
Common hazel is a winter-hardy plant, light and moisture-loving. In winter, pollen in catkins can withstand temperature drops to -30 ° C, during flowering it does not freeze at -3-5 ° C, and female flowers at -8 ° C. Prefers fertile, drained, acid-neutral, light and medium-textured soils. Dry and sandy soils are unsuitable for the growth of hazel.
Hazel is a shrub with a height of 2 to 8 m (cultivated varieties - 3-4 m), less often a tree, has a lot of root growth. Hazel blooms very early (in April) before the leaves open at a temperature of 12-15 ° C. Flowers appear mainly on young growths of the last year.
Pollinated by the wind. Dichogamy is observed - different-time flowering of male and female flowers on the same plant, therefore, for normal fruiting, it is necessary to plant 2-3 mutually pollinated varieties. It takes 5 months from pollination to ripening of nuts.
The fruit is a single-seeded nut with a dense shell, surrounded by a leaf wrapper - a plyus. When ripe (in August-September), the edges of the plush dry out and the nut falls out of the wrapper.
The fruits are usually located 3-4 together at the ends of the shoots, the mass of one nut is 2-3 g.
The root system is powerful, fibrous, superficial. On the roots there is mycorrhiza - special soil fungi.
Most of the roots are located at a depth of 10-30 cm,
Common hazel varieties
Varieties designed for the conditions of the middle lane, obtained mainly in the Ivanteevsky forest selection experimental and demonstrative nursery of the Moscow region. It:
- Academician Yablokov,
- Ivanteevsky red,
- Moscow early,
- Moscow ruby,
- Tambov early.
Variety Recognition, created for the same region, was bred in Ufa.
Southern varieties of hazel bred in research institutions in Krasnodar and Sochi:
- Ata Baba,
- Circassian 2,
- Sochi 1 and Sochi 2.
Red-leaved and green-leaved hazel
It is important to have inter-pollinated varieties on the site, which will contribute to annual fruiting. Tambov early and Pervenets are classified as pollinating varieties of red-leaved forms (they form many more winter-hardy male inflorescences).
In winter, pollen often dies in hazel varieties, but female flowers remain under the same conditions, and pollination will still take place at the expense of a frost-resistant pollinator variety.
Green-leaved hazels are considered more winter-hardy of red-leaved ones, more resistant to frost Pushkin red, Miracle of Vsesvyatsky, Maria Makarevich.
In the background in the photo there are red-leaved hazelnuts in May.
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Back in the 1920s, I.V. Michurin acclimatized southern varieties in Michurinsk and obtained winter-hardy cultivated forms.
His followers successfully continued their work, which made it possible to grow hazel in the middle lane.
For many years, new varieties and forms of hazelnuts have been successfully growing in the garden plots of the Moscow region, created in the NPO "Funduk" (Ivanteevka, Moscow region) and other research institutions.
The State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation recommended 19 varieties for growing, including 10 varieties for the middle zone and 9 for the south.
- root suckers,
- dividing the bush,
Seeds can be sown in autumn and spring. For spring sowing, nuts are stratified for 120-150 days at a temperature of 4-5 ° C in peat crumb, coarse sand or their mixtures. The sowing depth is 5-6 cm. It is better to propagate varieties and selected forms by vegetative methods, since when propagating by seeds, the characteristics of the mother plant are split.
When propagating by horizontal layers in late autumn or early spring, annual branches are bent down and placed in grooves 10-15 cm deep, pinned, the top is slightly shortened, the branches do not fall asleep.
From the buds on the branch, vertical shoots sprout as they grow, they are spud up 2-3 times to half the height, breaking off the leaves at the sprouting height. The soil for hilling should be mixed with humus (1: 1). By the fall, the shoots take root.
With this reproduction, a lot of planting material can be obtained from one bush.
Propagate hazel and arcuate layering. Annual branches in autumn or spring are bent arcuate into pits 20-30 cm deep.
In the place of the bend, the bark is incised, the branch is pinned to the soil with wooden or metal hooks. The pits are covered with fertile soil, leaving a top on the surface, which is tied to a peg.
In the fall or early spring of the next year, the rooted layers are separated from the mother plant and dug up.
Root shoots, formed from dormant buds on rhizomes, are not always ready for planting in a permanent place, even at the age of 2-3 years, since it has weak, underdeveloped roots. The shoots separated from the mother bush should be grown for 1-2 years in a garden bed or in a film greenhouse and only after that they should be planted in a permanent place.
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In places of natural growth, there are fruitful forms of hazel with good fruit quality, suitable for transfer to a garden plot. However, in this case, you should not dig up the entire bush, since you cannot count on good survival rate. It is better to take root shoots from such a bush for transplanting or root a conveniently located branch on the spot.
For grafting varieties and selected forms, seedlings of common hazel are used as rootstocks. They are grafted by budding in the usual summer periods or by a cuttings in the spring, using the grafting in the butt, in the split, behind the bark.
Growing hazel in the garden - planting and care
It is better to plant hazel along the borders of the garden plot in autumn or early spring according to the scheme: 4 × 4 or 3 × 3 m.
Planting pits 80 cm wide and 50 cm deep are filled with a mixture of the upper fertile soil layer with 10-15 kg of humus or compost, 200 g of superphosphate, 80 g of potassium sulfate. For better pollination, 3-5 bushes are planted. Seedlings are used that have 2-4 branches 30-50 cm long with a thickness of 1-1.5 cm at the base, a well-branched fibrous root system. The roots are pruned to 25-30 cm before planting.
When planting in a hole under the roots, it is good to pour a little soil taken from under the old hazel, it is rich in mycorrhiza present on the roots of hazel. After planting and watering (2 buckets of water), the trunks are mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 3-5 cm, and the branches are shortened to 20-25 cm.
In the first years after planting, the free space between the plants can be used for vegetable crops. Bite circles are kept loose and free from weeds or under a layer of organic mulch. The root system of hazel is superficial, so the soil is loosened no deeper than 5-8 cm.
When caring for hazel under young bushes, 10 kg of organic fertilizers per 1 m2 are applied every 3 years. Under fruit-bearing bushes in the fall, when digging the soil, they are applied every 2-3 years per 1 m2: 3-4 kg of manure or compost, 50-60 g of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium salt.In the spring, in the budding phase, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are added - 20-30 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate or urea.
When forming a bush, hazel leaves 6-10 trunks growing in all directions from the middle of the bush and located farther from one another. Cut dry, broken, weak, thickening and intertwining branches.
From the age of 20, when productivity decreases, the bushes begin to gradually rejuvenate: 2-3 old trunks are cut annually.
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New skeletal branches are formed from strong basal shoots, they are slightly shortened to cause the appearance of lateral branches.
There is another way to rejuvenate: all old branches are cut flush with the ground, 8-10 of the young who have grown up are chosen as the strongest and most well-located and form a new bush.
When growing hazel in the form of a tree, one stem is left at the planted seedling, a stem of 50-60 cm is laid on it and 4-5 skeletal branches are formed, the root shoots are systematically removed.
Abroad, hazelnuts are formed in the form of a tree, grafting on a tree-like hazel.
Pests and diseases
- nut weevil,
- kidney mite,
The fruits damage the caterpillars of the acorn moth, causing their massive shedding in August-September. Caterpillars overwinter in a dense cocoon under plant debris or in cracks in the bark. Measures to combat the acorn moth: in early spring - cleaning the bark, in the fall - harvesting and composting of fallen leaves.
- brown leaf spot,
- powdery mildew.
Use of hazelnut fruits
Hazelnuts are eaten fresh, dried, toasted (“roasted nuts”), and also used for making cakes, pastries, creams, fillings, and liqueurs.
Harvest. Mass harvesting of fruits occurs at the beginning of September, when the mules turn brown and individual nuts with an open muffin begin to crumble.
The collected nuts are dried for 15-20 days in a dry and well-ventilated area, stirring the fruits daily. When dried, the cupules are easily separated from the nuts.
Dried fruits are stored in cloth bags or paper bags in a dry room, where they do not lose their qualities for two to three years. Poorly dried nuts do not last long
Types and varieties of hazel
- a multi-stemmed shrub, reaching a height of 4-6 meters, with a wide spreading crown up to 4 m in diameter. The shoots of this hazel are pubescent, the leaves are round, up to 9 cm wide and up to 12 cm long. The flowering of common hazel begins before the leaves appear. Spherical nuts with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm in a light brown skin ripen in September. The plant is found both in culture and in the wild.
or bear nut - an ornamental plant with very tasty fruits. This is the only species of hazel that is a tree. In height, the tree hazel grows up to 8 meters, but in warm countries it can reach 20 m. The tree hazel lives up to 200 years. The leaves of this species are broadly ovate, located on petioles about 5 cm long.
- multi-stemmed, highly branching bush up to 5 m high with fissured dark gray bark. A feature of the species are oblong leaves and fruits. Peeling the nuts is difficult because they are wrapped in a prickly wrapper. This species is widespread in China and the Far East.
- shrub up to 3 m high with two-lobed leaves and a truncated top. In spring, earrings of male inflorescences and almost imperceptible red buds of female flowers appear on it. Fruits are formed in 2-3 pieces in a leaf wrapper. The species is widespread in Japan, China, Korea and the Far East. It is unpretentious to climatic conditions and can grow well in the middle lane.
- an ornamental shrub 4-6 m high, attracting attention with a lush crown of dark purple foliage, which becomes green only in autumn. The earrings of this hazel are maroon, like the kidneys. This type of hazel served as the basis for breeding many popular varieties and hybrids of the culture.
or Lombard nut - a shrub up to 10 m high. The fruits of the plant are located in a tubular wrapper, which is twice the size of the nuts themselves. Fruit kernels are fleshy and elongated. In nature, this species is found in the forests of Turkey, Italy and Asian countries.
There are also Chinese, American, Colchis, horned, Himalayan, or terrifying hazels, Siebold and other lesser known species.
Of the varieties of hazel, the most popular in our climatic conditions are:
- Isaevsky is one of the most valuable frost-resistant varieties with large fruits of excellent taste
- Masha is a fruitful and winter-hardy hybrid of red-leaved hazel with elongated fruits of medium size and excellent taste, enclosed in a thin shell
- Roman is a medium-ripening variety resistant to diseases and pests of Italian selection with large flat-round beautiful fruits of excellent taste.
In the middle lane, such varieties of hazel have proven themselves well: Ekaterina, Moscow Ruby, Pamyat Yablokova, Pervenets, Pushkin Red, Ivanteevsky Red, Kudriif, Moscow Early, Purple, Sugar, Sugar, a series of varieties Severny, Tambovskiy early, Tambovskiy late, Lentina, Alida , Lena and others.
In the southern regions of Russia and in Ukraine, varieties of hazelnuts Panakheskiy, Altayskiy, Cherkesskiy, Kuban, Perestroika, Futkura and others are popular.
Most of the varieties of red-leaved hazel are bred on the territory of Russia and the near abroad. The most famous:
- Catherine. A tall bush with large clusters of nuts (up to 8 pieces). Easily tolerates frosts up to 20 degrees. Dessert variety.
- Isaevsky. This tree is one of the highest yielding trees. Its nuts are large and tasty. The variety is grown even in the northern regions.
- Moscow Rubin. Dessert variety. Possesses good climatic endurance. It is inferior to some varieties of hazel in terms of yield. From one bush, you can get up to 5 kg of fruit.
- Hazelnut Siren. A variety of Polish selection. The bush is small, but has large beautiful leaves. Possesses strong vigor of growth, but gives a large yield only after external pollination.
Most of the varieties of red-leaved hazelnuts are unpretentious to the composition of the soil. Growing problems can arise only in saline soil. It is best to plant hazel in the sun as a hedge.
Hazelnut Moscow Rubin - hardy variety
Today, a large number of varieties of red-leaved hazel are known. They are used not only for harvesting, but also for decorative purposes.
The culture was bred in Holland. It is a small bush 4 meters high, dotted with red leaves. Hazelnut bloom begins in February. The culture normally perceives frost. The fruits are small in size and weigh only 2 grams. However, they taste great. Harvested in mid-August.
This type of plant is considered the most unusual. It is characterized by long, curved branches and wrinkled foliage. The branches are densely covered with pink-red earrings. Under natural conditions, culture grows in the Caucasus, Crimea, and Western Europe. This is a short bush, no more than 3 meters in height. The width of the crown reaches 2-3 meters. After planting, the culture quickly adapts and develops well.
This variety was bred in Warsaw. It is a fairly tall plant, reaching 7 meters. The culture is characterized by a lush spreading crown with a diameter of up to 6 meters.
The leaves are large and reddish-brown in spring. The foliage turns green in summer and orange in autumn. This is a rather whimsical culture, which is sensitive to frost and excessive soil moisture. Hazelnuts ripen in early autumn and have medium fruits.
This variety was developed in Poland. It is a low bush 4-5 meters in size. After planting, it grows rapidly. Hazel is decorated with large oval leaves that have a dark red hue.
In spring, the shoots are decorated with gray earrings. After blooming, they take on a bright red color. Fruiting of hazel begins at the end of summer. The fruits are large.
This type of hazel is called purpurea. It is a hybrid variety with excellent frost and drought resistance. Fruit ripening occurs in August-September. The bush is medium in size and reaches 3.5 meters in height. The fruits are small in size and weigh 1.5 grams.
Common hazel is considered a fairly popular plant. It is a bush that grows up to 4-6 meters in height. It is characterized by large red-brown leaves. They can also be dark purple in color. The lower part is covered with a lighter fluff than the upper one. By autumn, the foliage turns green.
Red-leaved hazelnuts - photo
Nuts with dark purple leaves have been known in horticulture since ancient times. Shoots, fruits and leaves of most plants are colored green thanks to chlorophyll, on which the process of photosynthesis depends. Chlorophyll is also found in purple leaves, but it is "masked" by anthocyanins, which provide plants with purple, blue and purple color. In the purple-leaved forms of hazel, the leaves remain red in the first half of the growing season, and later turn green.
Avellan hazel [Corylus avellana], or hazel, is widespread in the forests of Europe, its fruits have been included in the human menu since ancient times. With the development of gardening, hazel was domesticated. This happened in Asia Minor, on the territory of modern Turkey, which still remains the world's largest producer of hazel nuts. Cultural hazel got the Asian name - hazelnuts.
Purple-leaved forms of hazel are used in hazelnut breeding. Back in the 30s of the last century, the Russian breeder Alexander Sergeevich Yablokov created a numerous hybrid fund of hazelnuts, crossing its large-fruited varieties with selected forms of purple-leaved hazel. In the 1960s, Raisa Fedorovna Kudasheva continued breeding with hazelnuts and used Yablokov's hybrids.
Academician Yablokov (also known as In Memory of Yablokov). The author of the variety is R.F.Kudasheva. In its pedigree, in addition to the purple-leaved forms of hazel, there are the famous varieties of hazelnuts Barcelona and Trebizond. From them he inherited such a property as large-fertility. Nuts of this variety are acorn-shaped, elongated, length 25-30 mm, width 16-24 mm, weight 2.5 g (individual fruits up to 3.4 g). The kernel output is 48-56%.
Purple. Obtained in the same crossing combination as Academician Yablokov.
Authors A. S. Yablokov, S. G. Vanicheva, M. V. Kolesnikova,
N. S. Dmitrieva. Elongated nuts, weight 1.3 g. Kernel yield 45%.
Sugar. Obtained in the same crossing combination as Academician Yablokov. The author is R.F.Kudasheva. Round nuts, length 17 mm, width 18 mm, weight 1.6-1.8 g. Kernel yield 48%.
Ivanteevsky Red. The author is R.F.Kudasheva. It comes from crossing forms F 705 Ch F 129. Nuts are oval, elongated, length 23-27 mm, width 17-23 mm, weight 1.9-2.3 g. Kernel yield 46%.
Moscow Rubin. Author R.F.Kudasheva. It comes from the pollination of a Western European variety of hazelnuts with a mixture of pollen from purple-leaved forms of A.S. Yablokov's selection. Nuts are elongated, slightly expanding towards the top, length 26-29 mm, width 18-24 mm, weight 3.0-3.5 g (individual fruits up to 3.9 g). The kernel output is 48-52%.
Kudriif Author R. F. Kudasheva. Seedling of the Moscow Rubin. Nuts are elongated, with a pointed tip, weight 2.0-2.3 g. Kernel yield 52%.
As a result of the work of R.F.Kudasheva, the varieties Pushkinskiy Krasny, Ekaterina, Masha also appeared and became widespread.
At the end of the last century, Polish breeders were also engaged in crossing large-fruited varieties of hazelnuts and hazel with purple leaves. The Poles bred the varieties Varshavsky Chervony and Sirena (author Stanislav Zabezhansky).